Multiple Inheritance in C++

Multiple Inheritance In C++

Do you know what is multiple inheritance in C++? Have you ever thought about what will be the difference between single and multiple inheritance in C++? Let us try to know about multiple inheritance in C++ & also we will try to look into multiple inheritance in C++ examples.

But before we move forward & make a list of differences between single and multiple inheritance in C++, let us try to find what is an inheritance called. First, we learn about the meaning of inheritance from a common life example.

It is necessary to learn about the inheritance meaning. The meaning of inheritance is to gain some unique identification from others. In the biological term, the inheritance term uses in the family. Someone gets some unique identification from their seniors with the help of genes. In the simple, biological term an inheritance can be expressed like this.

Let us try to take one simple example that will help you to know about inheritance.


Real Life Example:


Your face is a prominent example of the inheritance in your family. Your face will resemble either your father. Or sometimes your face resembles your mother. It means you have got your facial structure from your parents. It means your parents’ identity is shared with you. In this way, we can define inheritance. It means that facial equality is developed by inheritance.

You might have some features that resemble your father. Some features resembled with mother. It means that inheritance helps to develop your feature by combining your parents’ features. The same thing happens in the programming languages like C++. Here, one class receives some unique identity from the other classes. Sometimes the classes receive identity from several classes. Like you receive identity from your parents.

Having a problem understanding the process. Let us try to start with the simple definition of inheritance in C++. Then we look into the multiple inheritance in C++ &  examples. Also, we make difference between single and multiple inheritance in C++.


Multiple Inheritance in C++



What Is Inheritance In C++? Read Below


C++ is an object-oriented programming language. And every OOPs programming language has inheritance as a core feature. Inheritance is a property that helps to acquire the feature of the other classes into another class. It means, using inheritance, one class can able to use the functions of the other classes. There may be lots of classes present there one single class can take the features. If a class derives the properties from another class, it will have the opportunity to use that function as per its need.

There are some naming processes are present. The class that are using properties of other classes is termed the “Child Class”. And the classes from where the properties are being used are termed the “Parent Classes”. The child class can change the properties of another class. According to the need, the properties of the other class can be changed in the child class. In this way, there will be no change in the parent class. There are lots of types present in the inheritance in C++.



What Are The Types Of Inheritance In C++?


There are five types of inheritance are present in C++. Among them, we intend to discuss multiple inheritance in C++. All the types of inheritances in C++ are the following ones:

  1. Single Inheritance
  2. Multiple Inheritance
  3. Multilevel Inheritance
  4. Hierarchical inheritance
  5. Hybrid inheritance


What Is Multiple Inheritance In C++? Get To Know


Now., it is time to know about multiple inheritance in C++. Here, it is not possible to look into each & every inheritance type in C++. As it is a type of inheritance, it will follow all the basic policies of inheritance. But here, as the name suggests it can inherit with more classes. That is why it is termed multiple inheritance. Here, it can extract the feature from the classes & use the combined feature in that class. Here, the pattern of the parent class matters.

In the inheritance, one particular operator is used. It is the colon operator (:). This colon operator after any class name is being used to indicate the inheritance. First, the child’s class name should be provided. Then, the parent class name is provided after the colon operator. In these inheritances, the series of classes should place after the colon operator. The sequence of the parent class will be followed. It means the first parent class in the sequence should be executed, then the other parent classes will execute one by one. 

General Syntax: child-class-name: series of parent class names



Difference Between Single and Multiple Inheritance In C++:


Let us find out some differences between Single and Multiple Inheritance in C++. As single inheritance is the most basic inheritance & multiple inheritance is the most complex one. So, the difference is essential.


Single Inheritance
Multiple Inheritance
In Single Inheritance, the child class can derive the features from one parent class. In Multiple Inheritance, the child class can derive the features from two or more parent classes.
Here, the child class gets the feature of only one parent class. Here, the child class gets the feature from one or more parents’ classes.
It takes a small amount of time to run a program. It takes a lot of time to execute a program.
There should be one parent class name after the inheritance operator. There should be two or more class names after the inheritance operator
Single Inheritance helps to develop specialized C++ programs. Multiple Inheritance helps to develop general C++ programs.
Other than the C++ programing language, several programming languages use Single Inheritance.  Only the C++ programming language can execute Multiple Inheritance.
The inheritance Tree is the result of using Single Inheritance. Multiple Inheritance helps to develop the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG).



Implementation Of Multiple Inheritance In C++:


Now, it is time to solve all the confusion. Simple implementation of multiple inheritance in C++ will help to understand the problem. Here, we have declared two classes. They are public classes. And in each class, there is a function. Inside the function, we have written one print statement.

Now, one thing is necessary while doing multiple inheritance in C++, the class name & the function name should be the same. If they are different, then it will not work. So, in the first class, the class & function names are the same. In the second class also, we have followed the same theory. Now, we have to declare the child’s class.

In the child class, after the name of the class, the colon operator is placed. Then after the colon operator, we provided the series of the parent class. The series will be followed. The first parent class function will be executed first. Then the second one will be executed. Now, we have to write the main function.

Inside the main function, we need to declare the child class. We need to declare the child class with one variable. It will initialize the program. And the series provided there will be followed only.




#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class zapone{ // First Class


  zapone()  { cout << "Hello ZapOne" << endl;}}; // Function With Same Name

class codingzap{ // Second Function


  codingzap()  { cout << "Hello CodingZap" << endl;}}; // Function With Same Name

class program: public codingzap, public zapone{ // This Function Order Is Followed


  program()  { cout << "This Is Multiple Inheritance" << endl;}}; // Third Function With Same Name

int main(){program cpp; // Declaration Of The Child Function

return 0;}

Let us try to find out the output of the above code. It will help to understand the multiple inheritance in C++ examples.



Inheritance in c++ output




As we saw multiple inheritance in C++ is an important topic.

It is advised to clear the basics of the C++ programming languages. It will help to understand the topic more easily.

We should remember the difference between single and multiple inheritance in C++. It will help us a lot in the future. We have to practice more & more examples.

So, hope you have liked this piece of article. Share your thoughts in the comments section and let us know if we can improve more.

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